(The Apology)

[CPL 3]


Photographic copy of Rome manuscript S. Isidoro 1/29 (15th century) ---- Photographic copy of Balliol manuscript 79 (1442-4)  
---- Photographic copy of Incunable (pre-1493) --- Latin/English: Irenaeus Philopolis (1642) --- 
Latin: Oehler/Glover, 1851-3 ; Becker, 1961 --- English: Reeve, 1709/1889; Dodgson, 1842; Chevallier, 1851; Thelwall, 1869; Bindley, 1890; Souter, 1917 --- French: Genoude, 1852; Waltzing, 1914 --- German: Kellner, 1915 --- Italian: Tescari, 1951 --- Portugese: Vidal, 2000 ---- Spanish: Manero, 1899 ---- Czech: Novák, 1985 ---- Arabic: Jelassi, 2003 ---- Russian: Н. Н. Щеглова

Summary Content Other points of interest Manuscripts Title variations Bibliography


A defense of the illegal Christian group.


The foremost of Tertullian's works, the Apologeticum or Apologeticus (see below) is a defense of Christianity against the unreasoning and unreasonable criticism of the unbelievers. It was composed in the summer or autumn of 197, and addressed to the provincial governors of the Roman Empire. It seems likely that it was written after the Ad Nationes and perhaps Adversus Judaeos, which it draws upon.

It opens with a request that the truth, being forbidden to defend itself publicly, may reach the ears of the rulers by the hidden path of silent literature.

It falls into two parts, dealing with the two types of accusations against the Christians:

Tertullian refutes these as nonsense, and concludes by asserting the absolute superiority of the Christian religion overall, as a revealed religion. He realised that no war is won by remaining on the defensive, and so goes over to attack the indefensible attitudes of the unbelievers, who presumed to judge people who were infinitely their superiors, even by their own standards. With this, the victory of Christianity became possible.


Christians are persecuted in ignorance, because they are not allowed to defend themselves - as long as they can be called 'Christians', they can be executed. Real criminals are allowed to deny their offences, defend themselves, and are tortured to get them to confess. By contrast the Christians are not allowed to demand evidence of any crimes they are condemned for, and are tortured to make them stop confessing. Christians are denied any chance to vindicate themselves, nor do the magistrates try to find any evidence of crime - the name of 'Christian' is enough.

Yet you know very well that particular Christians are moral and upright people. But you don't connect the two events. It has even happened that a wanton wife has become chaste on becoming a Christian, a useless slave has become faithful. Apparently their crimes only matter once they have abandoned them.

But it's not enough to just deny the charges against the Christians. Let's have a look at the unbelievers, and see how they stack up on the same charges, as we do. Perhaps we shall find that in fact the worst of men are accusing the best! You call us guilty, empty-headed, damnable and ridiculous. We shall see.

You talk as if the law has spoken and that is an end of it. But haven't you changed your laws, when they were unjust? Why is Christianity illegal? Only because of the rescripts of the wickedest emperors! Surely a condemnation by a Nero, or a Domitian, is enough to vindicate anyone! As the letters of Pliny the Younger to Trajan, and Trajan's reply show, good emperors forbade the hunting down of Christians.

But what about you unbelievers? Do you observe the laws? Do you observe the laws that limit luxury and obstruct ostentation? (Carthage was notorious for both). I see whores and wives dress alike today, and divorce is rife, which might surprise rather the founders of your state, who created your customs and laid down your laws on these matters. And while criticising the Christians for ignoring the state religion, you seem to ignore it yourself, by importing all these funny old cults of Bacchus and Serapis, which the senate actually booted out of Italy in more decent times.

If to be a Christian is to take part in baby-eating and ritual incest, why does no-one try to prove those charges? Despite the activities of the informers and way that soldiers blackmail the Christians, no-one has ever come across a half-eaten baby! It's all just rumour. And do you think eternal life is worth it, if the price is eating babies and incest? If not, why do you suppose we do? Tertullian paints a vivid and ridiculous picture of what a Christian life must be like, if the rumours have any foundation.

But maybe you believe it, because you know that infant sacrifice to Cronos was still going on until very recently, right here in Africa. Maybe you remember that it is quite legal to drown an unwanted baby, or expose it. Do you suppose that these stern magistrates, baying for the blood of the Christians, might know something of infanticide and abortion? How cruel to snuff out a child in the womb, or in water. Grown-ups would rather die by iron. Ritual murder is already part of pagan religion, in specially convened games. As for incest, since you unbelievers screw around so much, and abandon your children to an unknown fate, incest for you must be a inevitable although unknown event!

But now our more conspicuous crimes!

No, we don't worship your fake gods. We don't worship men, and you admit that your gods were all just that once. So how did they become gods? What did they do, that made them divine? They certainly didn't make the world, or anything that is in it. Nor do the whoring, raping, murderous crew you describe as gods deserve anything more than imprisonment in Tarterus, since that is where you would assign any man who behaved like that. If they don't deserve that, why do you condemn in your courts men who do the same sorts of things? And does the status of each god really depend on a vote of the senate?

But you don't worship them either. Not unless being impious and sacriligious constitutes worship.You buy and sell your little household gods like pots, and tax your temples. You charge admittance - one may not know the gods for nothing ; they are for sale. You give your gods the useless bits of dead animals. In fact you do nothing for your gods that you don't for your dead - the same altars, statues, emblems. You retail the vilest stories of your gods - of their tantrums and adulteries. You allow the public theatres to display your gods as entertainment, played by the shameful wretches you have as actors. You allow the temples to act as brothels, and priests as panders. Even the temple-robbers are always of your faith!

So what do we worship instead? We worship Truth. Get hold of this first, and then learn our whole system.

But a few more lies to dispose of. We don't worship an ass-headed god - we leave that to you, and your Anubis cult. We don't worship the cross, a bit of wood. Worshipping bits of wood - idols - is your trick. In fact the trophies of victory you adore all hang off cross-shaped bits of wood, so that's you, not us, once again.

A few of the more refined of you think we worship the sun. Again, that is your practise, not ours.

Instead we worship the one God, the creator. He gave us books to allow us to know him, unknowable as the infinite is of itself, and sent men to tell us about him. Antiquity is almost a superstition among you - consider the antiquity of these books of the Jews! And among them was Christ born, as they knew he must sometime be. God devised the universe by word, powere and reason, as Zeno the Stoic knew, and your own philosophers have sometimes recognised. And a ray of this power, this light, became man, in the womb of a virgin, and is Christ. For as a ray is projected from the sun, but does not diminish the sun's light, and is of the same nature and substance as the sun's light, but an extension of it, so the son of God has proceeded from God, and is one with Him, and not separated. This is like your own stories.

Because of this power, the Jews thought him a magician. He lived a life of power, was executed, and returned. Then he taught his pupils for 40 days in Galilee, sent them out to tell the world, and was then caught up to heaven - far more truly than any Romulus of yours. We cannot lie about our religion - to do so is to deny what we worship. You can call our founder a man if you must - but through him God wants to be known and worshipped. Jews needn't sneer - didn't you learn about God through a man, named Moses? Unbelievers might pause and remember that men among them have set up religions.

Ask yourselves then; is Christ divine? If in fact recognising him as such remakes a man and makes him good, then false deity had better be abandoned. Your own writers pay plenty of testimony to other spiritual natures. The books of Moses make clear their nature - they are corrupt angels, demons. They seek to corrupt body and soul, and they can be everywhere, such is their nature that their swiftness passes for divinity. They cause disease, which they are kind enough then to heal! You know how magicians are - imagine what evils the powers they draw upon are like. And such are your gods. Produce one of your 'inspired' men, with his demon, and let any Christian you please talk to him. The demon will soon confess that he is a demon! Try it, and if he doesn't, hang the impudent Christian forthwith. The name of Christ will compell them to talk true, and what then is left of your 'gods', if they admit themselves they are demons?

Surely every man is entitled to worship as he pleases. After all, no-one, not even a man wants unwilling worship.

But you tell me that the Romans rule the world because of the gods, and we endanger state security by our failure to worship them, risking their anger. Well, since you captured those gods from foreigners, whom they failed signally to defend, it doesn't seem as if their help is worth much! So our refusal to worship them doesn't hurt you. On the contrary, we ask the Creator to help the empire. A real God is rather more useful than a fake one.

The second charge is more serious, apparently - treason against Caesar. Truly a living man is more important than a fake god, even to you! But we ask the real God to help him, not the fakes and demons. Of course we're just lying to you, but look in our holy books, which we don't conceal. And since the Roman empire holds off the end of the world, naturally we wish it to be preserved. But not by false honours, and dishonest applause, which Augustus himself rejected. Moreover your religion is of such a nature that frankly Caesar is dishonoured by being included in it, with its impious way of worship being positively disrespectful to him. But be serious - is it really the Christians who assassinate the emperors? And wasn't every one of the assassins worshipping the emperor, right up until they stabbed him; and even giving the Christians the name of public enemies while they themselves plotted? Of course we aren't treasonous - if we were, we are so numerous in even your own estimate that we outnumber your soldiers! If you killed us all, who would be left for you to rule?

The meetings of the Christians are described, and how the Christians love one another. Yet the unbelievers sneer at the way Christians call each other 'Brothers' - because among pagans such usage always means fraud. We share everything except our wives - you share nothing except your wives.

Every misfortune is ascribed to the Christians - as if earthquakes never happened until 33AD.

You say that the community suffers because of us - we are unprofitable in business. Yet we have to live, and buy and sell like everyone else. The only people to suffer are the pimps and magicians! But the state really does suffer when the honest and hardworking can be executed because they are Christians - that really does decrease the public revenue.

So are we the only ones who are innocent? Well, we are certainly the only ones living by a philosophy that makes us so!

You say we are just another spin-off of philosophy, then. Well why don't you persecute your philosophers, then, when they say the gods are fake, or bark against the emperors. Perhaps it is because the name of 'philosopher' does not drive out demons like 'Christian' does.

We are not a new philosophy but a divine revelation. That's why you can't just exterminate us; the more you kill the more we are. The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church. You praise those who endured pain and death - so long as they aren't Christians! Your cruelties merely prove our innocence of the crimes you charge against us. When you chose recently to hand a Christian girl over to a brothel-keeper rather than to the lions, you showed you knew we counted chastity dearer than life.

And you frustrate your purpose. Because those who see us die, wonder why we do, for we die like the men you revere, not like slaves or criminals. And when they find out, they join us.

[For another assessment, see T.D.Barnes on the Apologeticum (1970).]


'If the Tiber rises too high for the walls, or the Nile too low for the fields, if the heavens do not open, or the earth does, if there is famine, if there is plague, instantly the howl is, "The Christians to the lion!" What, all of them, to a single lion?'


See full description on the Manuscripts of the Apologeticum page.


APOLOGETICVM Lactantius, Inst. V, 4,3
APOLOGETICVM TERTVLLIANI Petropolitanus Latinus I Q. v. 40,
Parisinus Latinus 1623,
Montepessulanus H 54,
Gorziensis (lost),
Erlangensis 225
<liber> apologeticus Jerome, Letter 70,5 and the other codices



This runs up to 1956.  Where not otherwise indicated, details are from Quasten's Patrology, 2 (1955). See also Editions page and Critical Editions page for more information.

[Note: I need to add some biblio, from l'Annee Phil. for the years 1954-1974, and from CTC to date].


Irenæus PHILOPOLIS, A true Christian subject under an heathen prince: or Tertullian's plea for allegeance [extr. from his Apologeticus. With a transl.]. With a brief application to the citizens of London, written by a member of the House of commons [signing himself Irenæus Philopolis. Madan 1244]. [Oxford] 1642, 4o. Repr. 1643. Latin/English extracts. (Details from Bodleian online catalogue). Oxford: Printed by Henry Hall, 1643 [2], 6 p. Wing T789. (Extra details CUL).  [I've seen this - now online]
[Unknown], Q. Septimii Florentis Tertulliani Apologeticus et Ad scapulam liber: accessit M. Minucius Felicis Octavius Cantabrigiæ: Ex officina Joan. Hayes ... : impensis Henr Dickinson & Rich. Green ..., 1686. [8],135,[3],11,[67],74,[2]p; 14cm (12mo). Wing T784. Final leaf contains advertisement for "Books ... sold by R. Green"
Wing T784 (Details CUL)
H.A.WOODHAM, Q. Septimii Tertulliani Liber Apologeticus. With English notes, and a preface ... By H. A. Woodham. Publisher: Cambridge, 1843. 8o, Repr. Cambridge, 1850. 8o.(Details from BL online catalogue) 
J.I. RITTER, Tertullian, Apologeticus adversus gentes. Cum lectionum varietate ed. J. I. Ritter. Elberfeld, H. Büschler, 1828. 8, 150 S. (Details from bookseller ad. on www.zvab.com). 
F. OEHLER, Tertullian. Apologeticum et ad nationes libri duo. Ex fide optimorum codicum manuscriptorum aut primum aut denuo collatorum cum adnotanione perpetua edidit Fr. Oehler. Halle, E. Anton, 1849. 12, 454 pp.   (Details from Bibliofind website).  This edition appeared before the complete edition of Oehler.
T.H. BINDLEY, Quinti Septimii Florentis Tertulliani Apologeticus adversus gentes pro Christianis, ed., with intr. and notes, by T.H. Bindley. Oxford 1889. 19cm. Other names: Bindley, Thomas Herbert (Details from Bodleian online catalogue).
G. RAUSCHEN, Tertulliani Apologetici recensio nova (adnotavit G. Rauschen). Bonnae 1906. 23cm. Series: Florilegium patristicum 6. (Details from Bodleian online catalogue)
J. P. WALTZING, Tertullien, Apologétique, texte établi d'après le codex Fuldensis par Jean Pierre Waltzing. Liège & Paris. 1914 . 23cm. Series Bibl., Fac. de phil. et lett., Univ. de Liège 22  (Details from Quasten & Bodleian online catalogue)
J.E.B. MAYOR & A. SOUTER, Tertulliani Apologeticus, text of Oehler annotated with an introduction by J. E. B. Mayor and a translation by A. SOUTER, Cambridge 1917. : Q. Septimi Florentis Tertulliani Apologeticus. The text of Oehler annotated, with an introduction, by John E. B. Mayor ... With a translation by Alex. Souter.. pp. xx. 496. University Press: Cambridge, 1917. 8o. (Details from BL online catalogue). 23cm. (Details from Bodleian online catalogue). Checked.
S. COLOMBO, L'Apologetico, ed. con introduzione, commento, apparato critico e appendice critica. Turin, 1918.
G. RAUSCHEN, FP 12. Bonn, 1919.
J. P. WALTZING, Tertullien, L'Apologétique, texte établi d'après la double tradition manuscrite, apparat critique et tr. revue, par J.P. Waltzing. [With] Comm. Liege & Paris. 1919; reprinted Paris, 1931. 2 parts: I: Texte établi d'après la double trad. manuscrite, apparat critique et trad. littérale. II: Comment. analytique, gramm. et hist. 23 cm. Series: Bibl., Fac. de phil. et lett., Univ. de Liège 23, 24 (Details from Bodleian online catalogue & Quasten)
A. SOUTER, Tertullian, Q. Septimi Florentis Tertvlliani Apologeticvs, Aberdeen : The University Press, 1926. pp. 92. 18 cm. Souter, Alexander, 1873-1949. (Details from Bodleian online catalogue) Checked.  Latin-only critical edition for students using British Library Royal MS, but no apparatus.
S. COLOMBO, Tertullianus, Apologeticum, rec. praef. est, app. crit. et indic. instruxit (Corpus script. lat. Paravianum 46). Turin, 1926.
G. MAZZONI, L'Apologetico di Tertulliano (I classici cristiani). Siena, 1928.
J. P. WALTZING et A. SEVERYNS, Tertullien, Apologétique, texte établi et traduit. Paris, 1929.
T. R. GLOVER, Tertullian, Apology, De Spectaculis with an English translation (Loeb Classical Library 250). London, 1931.  Latin is Oehler for Apology, CSEL20 for Spect. Also contains ; Minucius Felix, Octavius, translated by G.H.Rendall.  Checked.
J. MARTIN, Tertullianus, Apologeticum, ed. et adnot. (FP 6). Bonn, 1933.
H. HOPPE, CSEL 69 (1939). Checked.
Onorato TESCARI, Tertulliano, L'apologetico : testo con introduzione, versione e commento a cura di Onorato Tescari. Turin : Sei, Soc. ed. internazionale, ( 1951- ) 8. p. xl, 289. ( Corona patrum salesiana. Sanctorum patrum graecorum et latinorum opera selecta addita interpretatione vulgari in usum praecipue clericorum consilio atque hortatu Petri Ricaldoni. Series latina).  Introduction and Translation ONLINE
C. BECKER, Tertullian. Apologeticum. Verteidigung des Christentums. Lateinisch und Deutsch. Herausgegeben, übersetzt und erläutert von Carl Becker. München: Kösel, 1952. 1. Aufl. 8°. (Details from Bibliofind & Quasten).
C. BECKER, Tertullian. Apologeticum. Verteidigung des Christentums. Lateinisch und Deutsch.Hrsg., übersetzt und erläutert v. Carl Becker. München, Kösel 1961. 2., durchgesehene Aufl.317 (4) pp.  Revised extensively after comments by Evans, I understand.  (Details from Bibliofind). Checked.  Many subsequent reprints.
P. FRASSINETTI, Q. Septimi Florentis Tertulliani Apologeticum / recensuit Paulus Frassinetti. -- Augustae Taurinorum, In Aedibus I.B. Paraviae (1965). xxiv, 149 p. ; 21 cm. -- (Corpus scriptorum latinorum Paravianum)  (Details from Dr. A. Nicolotti).


P. HENEN, Index verborum quae Tertulliani Apologetico continentur. Louvain, 1910.


English: H. BROWN, Tertullian's Apology, or defence of the Christians, against the accusations of the Gentiles. Now made English by H(enry) B(rown). [With an address to the translator by T. Westley.] Printed by Tho. Harper and are to be sold by Thomas Butler. London, 1655. [26], 179, [21]p: 4o . With final errata leaf. Wing(2) T785 (Details CUL). -- Reprint, 1657: Small 4to. [28], 179, [20] pp./ London: Printed for the use and benefit of Tho. Gibbs ., 1657. Notes: A re-issue of the 1655 edition, with a new title-page. Description ends with semi-colon. - Errata on final leaf. Wing(2) T786 (Details CUL).  Also listed BL, Bodleian, and  booksellers catalogue - priced at $2,000 in 2001.  [I've seen this one in CUL.  Crudely printed.  The CUL copy has an interesting handwritten note on the fly-leaf which I reproduce in full: "This translation is evidently not made from the Latin, but is a bare-faced copy, preface and all, from the French translation of Giry, 1635.  There is another copy of this work with a different title, printed in 1657, but the prefixing the title is only a booksellers' trick, the  book is the very same, as the table of errata at the end shews at once".]
-- P. B., Those two excellent monuments of ancient learning piety, Minucius Felix's Octavius, and Tertullian's Apology for the primitive Christians, render'd into Engl. [by P.B.]. London, 1708. 8o. (Details from Bodleian online catalogue)
-- W. REEVES, The apologies of Justin Martyr, Tertullian, and Minutius Felix, in defence of the Christian religion, with the commonitory of Vincentius Lirinensis concerning the primitive rule of faith, tr.: with notes [&c.] by W. Reeves. London 1709. 2 vols. ; 8o. Reprinted in a second edition 1716/1717. (Details from Bodleian online catalogue)  Tertullian portion online in 1889 reprint.  [I've now seen the CUL copy of the 1709.  The introductory material is quite interesting, and deserves to appear online sometime.]
-- Rev. Temple CHEVALLIER, A Translation of the Epistles of Clement of Rome, Polycarp, and Ignatius; and of the apologies of Justin Martyr and Tertullian: with an introduction ... , Cambridge, J. & J. J. Deighton, 1833, 8vo, cxi,502pp, full morocco, blind tooling to borders of boards, inner dentelles gilt, gilt decorated bands to spine. raised bands with blind tooling in compartments, title, etc., gilt, all edges gilt, silk bookmark.  (Details from abebooks.com)
-- Rev. Temple CHEVALLIER, A Translation of the Epistles of Clement of Rome, Polycarp, and Ignatius; and of the apologies of Justin Martyr and Tertullian, London: Rivington, Cambridge: Deighton.  2nd edition (1851).  Tertullian portion online. Checked (Personal copy).
-- C. DODGSON, Library of Fathers 10. Oxford, 1842, 1-106.  Online.  Priced at £ 111.51 [May 2004]
-- S. THELWALL, ANCL 11 (1869), 53-140; ANF 3 (1885), 17-55.   Online.  Checked.
-- W. REEVES (reprint), The Apology of Tertullian, tr. and annotated by W. Reeve; and the Meditations of the emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, tr. by J. Collier. pp. xvi. 270. [1889.] Series: Ancient and modern library of theological literature 31. (Details from BL online catalogue)(Details from Bodleian online catalogue).  Tertullian portion online.
-- T.H.BINDLEY, The Apology of Tertullian for the Christians, Translated with introduction, analysis, and appendix containing the Letters of Pliny and Trajan respecting the Christians, by T. H. Bindley.. pp. xvi. 158. London & Oxford: Parker & Co. (1890). Small 8o. Checked.  
-- A. SOUTER, loc. cit., 1917. Checked. Online.
T. R. GLOVER, loc. cit. 3-227. 
-- E.J.DALY, Fathers of the Church 10 (1950) pp. 7-126. Tertullian; Minucius Felix : Apologetical Works; Octavius; The Fathers of the Church: A New Translation (Patristic series) 10; 01/1950 xix, 430 pages : cloth ISBN: 0-8132-0010-5.  Checked.
French : [Unknown], Apologetique De Tertulien. Ou Défense des premiers Chretians contre les calomnies des Gentils. Avec Des Notes pour L'eclaircissment des faits & des matieres. Paris, Jacques Collombat. 1715. Quarto. Frontispiece, pp. 150. (Details from bookseller catalogue)
-- M. l'abbé de COURCY, Tertullien, L'Apologique et les Prescriptions de Tertullien. Nouvelle édition revue et corrigée d'après les manuscrits, les éditions et différents ouvrages de Tertullien, avec la traduction et des remarques par M. l'abbé de Courcy..., Publisher : Paris : Sorin (1780). Description : XXXVI-423 p. : errata, approbation et privilège ; 12°. Notes : Le texte latin précède la traduction.(Details from the Montpellier library catalogue)
-- L'abbé MEUNIER, Tertullien: Apologétique de Tertullien / traduite par l'abbé Meunier ; et publiée par A.-H. Dampmartin. Publisher : Paris : Hubert (1822). Description : XLII-218 p. ; 17 cm. (Details from the Montpellier library catalogue)
-- M. l'abbé de GOURCY, L'Apologétique et les Prescriptions de Tertullien, traduction de l'abbé de Gourcy. Nouvelle édition... suivie de l'Octavius de Minucius Felix, traduction nouvelle. Avec le texte en regard et des notes, Publisher : Lyon : J. Janon, (1823). Description : XXXVI-624 p. ; 8º, 21,5 cm. Notes : La traduction de l'Octavius est d'Antoine Péricaud, et les notes signées C. B. de C. Breghot du Lut, d'après Barbier.  Other titles : Apologétique. - Texte latin, trad. française (Details from the Montpellier library catalogue)
-- M. l'abbé J.-Félix ALLARD, Apologétique de Tertullien. Nouvelle traduction précédée de l'examen des traductions antérieures, d'une introduction... accompagnée du texte en regard... suivie des variantes et d'un commentaire, Publisher : Paris : Dondey-Dupré père et fils (1827). Description : 448 p. ; 21 cm. Other titles : Apologétique. - Texte latin, trad. française (Details from the Montpellier library catalogue)
-- M. CHARPENTIER, Oeuvres de Tertullien: Apologétique. Prescriptions contre les gentils. Du Baptême. De l'Ornement des femmes. [Contre les spectacles. De la Patience. De la Couronne du soldat. Contre Marcion, extrait. De la Chair de Jésus-Christ. De la Résurrection de la chair. Aux nations. - listed in table of contents but not on title page] Paris : Ed. M. Charpentier, 1844. 12o, III-504 p.  Another title page has the address:"A. Delahays, 1845". "Oeuvres de Tertullien traduites en français" Checked (Details from BNF catalogue and personal copy).  Apologeticum is pp.1-84.
Louis BAUDET, Tertullien et Saint Augustin:Oeuvres choisies avec la traduction en français publiées sous la direction de Nisard. Paris: J.-J. Dubochet : Le Chevalier et Cie (1845). Description : II-816 p. ; 28,5 cm. (Details from the Montpellier library catalogue)
-- E.-A. DE GENOUDE, Apologetique ou Défense des Chrétiens contre les Gentils, Oeuvres de Tertullien: Paris (1852).  3 vols.  Vol. 2, pp. 251-342. Checked. Online.
Louis BAUDET, Tertullien et Saint Augustin:Oeuvres choisies avec la traduction en français publiées sous la direction de Nisard. Paris: Firmin-Didot (1877). Grd. in-8 relié demi-chagrin. Rouss. éparses. 816 pp. Tertullien : Apologétique (pp. 5 - 60). Saint Augustin : La Cité de Dieu (pp. 65 - 804).  (Details from bookseller catalogue). [The Apologia translated by L. Baudet. The first half of the De civitate Dei translated by L. Baudet, the second half by P. Lombert.] Physical Desc.: pp. ii. 816. ; 8o. (Further details, COPAC.  Copy at British Library; Montpellier library catalogue).
-- J.P. WALTZING, L'Apologétique de Tertullien, tr., suivie d'un comm. historique, par J.P. Waltzing. Louvain &c. 1911. 23cm. (Details from Bodleian online catalogue)
-- J. P. WALTZING, Apologétique : Apologie du Christianisme. Écrite en l'an 197 après J. -C. Traduction Litterale. 2nd Ed. Paris, 1914.
J. P. WALTZING et A. SEVERYNS, loc. cit., 1929 (Many reprints).  Checked.
Selvaggia BORGHINI, Opere di Tertulliano tradotte in Toscano. Rome (1756). p.1-108.  Personal copy. Checked.
-- Francesco CRICCA, Tertulliano, Apologetico o difesa de'cristiani Contro I Gentili / tradotto e commentato da Francesco Cricca.  Bologna : Tip. Legale (1886) 8. p. 171. Note Generali: L. 2. (Details from SBN OPAC)
-- Giuseppe STOISSA, Tertulliano, L'apologetico : Traduzione italiana del dott. Giuseppe Stoissa. Asti : Tip. Popolare Astigiana (1912). 164. p. 25cm. Series: I padri della Chiesa   The latter gives place of publication as Genova.
-- Gino MAZZONI, Tertulliano: Apologetico. Siena: Ezio Cantagalli (1928). Series: I Classici Cristinani. p. v + 247. (Details from personal copy)
Igino. GIORDANI, Tertulliano, L'Apologetico, trad. Brescia, 1935.
-- Gennaro AULETTA, Tertulliano, L'apologetico : A cura [e traduzione dal latino] di Gennaro Auletta. Roma : Ave, An. Veritas Editrice (1947) Tip. Poliglotta Vaticana
16. p. 152 con quattro tavole.
-- Francesco GUARINO, Tertulliano, L'apologetico / [traduzione dal latino e introduzione] a cura di Francesco Guarino. Roma : Ed. Paoline (1950) Tip. Figlie di S. Paolo
16. p. 206. L. 200.
-- Onorato TESCARI, loc. cit., (1951- ) Introduction and Translation ONLINE
-- Luigi RUSCA, Tertulliano, Apologia del cristianesimo / Tertulliano ; traduzione di Luigi Rusca. Milano : Rizzoli, 1956. 181 p. ; 16 cm. ( Biblioteca universale Rizzoli) Da P. 159-179 note al testo.
-- Igino GIORDANI, Tertulliano, L' apologetico . La prescrizione contro gli eretici ; traduzione,introduzione e note di Igino Giordani. Pubblicazione: Roma : Citta nuova, (c1967) 220 p. ; 22 cm.
-- Ettore PARATORE & Ernesto BUONAIUTI, Tertulliano, Apologetico / Tertulliano ; traduzione di Ernesto Buonaiuti ; introduzione revisione e commento di Ettore Paratore .Bari : Laterza (1972) XXVIII, 273 p. ; 18 cm. ( Piccola biblioteca filosofica Laterza)
-- Anna RESTA BARRILE, Tertulliano, Apologetico / Tertulliano ; testo latino, traduzione e note di Anna Resta Barrile. Bologna : Zanichelli, stampa (1980).
XXXV, 245 p. ; 20 cm. ( Prosatori di Roma) .  1984, 1992 versions also exists with same page count etc.
-- Luigi RUSCA, Claudio MICAELLI, Tertulliano,  Apologia del cristianesimo, La carne di Cristo / Quinto Settimio Fiorente Tertulliano ; introduzione e note di Claudio Moreschini ; traduzione di Luigi Rusca [di Apologia del cristianesimo] ; introduzione, traduzione e note di Claudio Micaelli [a La carne di Cristo] .Milano : Biblioteca universale Rizzoli, (1984). 461 p. ; 18 cm. ( BUR. L ; 474.) Tit. sul dorso: Apologia del cristianesimo.Tit. orig.: Apologeticum, De carne Christi. ISBN 88-17-12474-5.
-- Anna RESTA BARRILE, Tertulliano, Apologetico / Tertulliano ; a cura di A. Resta Barrile .[Milano] : A. Mondadori, (1994). XXIX, 227 p. ; 20 cm. ( Classici greci e latini ; 55.) Trad. italiana a fronte. ISBN 88-04-38004-7 : L. 14000
-- Luigi RUSCA, Claudio MICAELLI, Tertulliano, Apologia del Cristianesimo, La carne di Cristo / Quinto Settimio Fiorente Tertulliano ; [Apologia del Cristianesimo] introduzione di Claudio Moreschini ; traduzione di Luigi Rusca ; [La carne di Cristo] introduzione, traduzione e note di Claudio Micaelli .Milano : Fabbri, stampa (1998).
284 p. ; 19 cm. ( I classici dello spirito) .  (I have a copy of this.  The introduction says that the Rusca translation has been modified slightly)
Spanish: Pedro MANERO, Tertuliano, Apología contra los gentiles. Zaragoza: Diego Dormer (1644). [16], 214 p. : 4º ; 20 cm. Ref: Palau 300802 (Details from Quasten, also in BN Spain, and Biblioteca de Catalunya).  Manero was OFM and Bishop of Tarazona (1599-1659).  Repr. Madrid, 1657, with Libro de paciencia.
-- Pedro MANERO, TERTULIANO, Apología de quinto septimio Florente Tertuliano. Madrid: Impr. Benito Cano, (1789), M. 21x15. Plena piel. 291 pgs. [12], 176, [4], 240, 51, [9] p. : 4º ; 21 cm (Details from abebooks.com and Biblioteca de Catalunya). Includes Exhortacion de ... Tertuliano & Libro de paciencia. [Seen at £116.55, May 2004]
-- Manuel XIMENO Y URIETA, Colección de Apologistas Antiguos de la Religion Cristiana, San Justino, Taciano de Siria, Atenagora. Ximeno y Urieta, Manuel. Descripción: RELIGION Teofilo de Antioquia, Tertuliano, Minucio Felix y Origenes, traducidos o analizados Imprenta Real, Madrid, 1792. 2 vols. pasta española, cortes pintados, XXXVI+357 y 358 págs., 4º. (Details from bookseller).
-- Pedro MANERO, TERTULIANO, Q. Septimio F., Apología contra los gentiles en defensa de los Cristianos. Madrid: Libr. Vda. de Hernando y Cia (1889). Series: Biblioteca Clasica t. 125. 18x12. 377p:-  1-130: Preface, 131-329: Apologeticum, 331-344: De exhortatione castitatis ch 1-4 only, 345-377: De Patientia.  Checked. (Personal copy: now online)
-- Pedro MANERO, idem, Madrid : Libr. y Casa Editorial Hernando (1927). 377 p. ; 19 cm. Series: Biblioteca clásica 135. (Details Biblioteca de Catalunya)
-- Gonzalo San Martin LASTRA, Tertuliano , El Apologetico ; nueva traduccion del original latino y notas bio-bibliograficas. Santiago (Chile) : Ercilla (1938) 185 p. ; 19 cm. Series: Coleccion amauta.  (Details from SBN OPAC)
-- G. PRADO, El Apologetico de Tertuliano (Colección Excelsa 7). Madrid, 1943.
-- [Unknown], Tertuliano, Quinto Septimio F. Apología contra los Gentiles. Col. Austral, Espasa Calpe, Buenos Aires 1947. 1 ed. 11x18. 162pp. Rústica con sobrecubierta. (Details from abebooks)
-- Fr. Pedro MANERO, Obispo de Tarazona, Tertuliano: Apología contra los gentiles en defensa de los cristianos ; Exhortación a los critianos presos en las cárceles ; Libro de la paciencia: traducción del latín y prefacio por Fr. Pedro Manero.  [Madrid : Aguilar : Ograma, 1945, repr. 1962] 542 p., 1 h. de lám. ; 12 cm. Colección: Colección "Crisol" ; 121 (Details from BN Spain).
-- Julio Andión MARÁN, Tertuliano : El apologético; introducción, traducción y notas. Madrid : Ciudad Nueva, [1997] 252 p. ; 21 cm. Colección: Biblioteca de patrística ; 38. (BN Spain).
-- Carmen Castillo GARCÍA, Tertuliano : Apologético ; A los gentiles ; introducción, traducción y notas. Madrid : Gredos, [2001] 318 p. ; 20 cm. Colección: Biblioteca clásica Gredos ; 285. (BN Spain).
-- Alfonso ROPERO, Lo Mejor de Tertuliano ; compilado por: Alfonso Ropero. Terrassa : Clie (2001). 335 p. : il. ; 24 cm. ISBN: 84-8267-206-1(cart.). Series: Grandes autores de la fe Patrística 4.  Contains: Apología contra los gentiles (Apol.); Exhortación a los mártires (Exort); La virtud de la paciencia (Pat); La oración (Orat); La respuesta a los judíos (Jud). (Details Biblioteca de Catalunya, personal copy).  pp.43-174.  Checked.
Catalan: Miquel DOLÇ & Félix SENTIES, Tertuliano: Apologètic ; text revisat, introducció i notes de Miquel Dolç ; traducció de Félix Senties. Barcelona : Fundació Bernat Metge (1960) 200 p. (63-191 dupl.) ; 23 cm. Coleccion: Escriptors llatins : text i traducció. Texto paralelo en catalán y latín. (Details from http://cisne.sim.ucm.es/ and Biblioteca de Catalunya, which describes it as [330] p. ; 23 cm) 
Portugese: Manuel Pinto MOURO, Apologeticum (Scripsit) Quintus Spimius Florens Tertulianus / Tertuliano, intr., vers. port. e comentário de Manuel Pinto Mouro .- Lisboa: Ed. do Autor (1974). 385 p., 6 f. 28 cm (Details from BN Portugal)
German: [Unknown], Tertullianus, Apologeticus ... deutsch, Lüneburg, (1682) (Details from Goettingen).
-- J. F. KLEUKER, Tertullian: Vertheidigung der christlichen Sache gegen die Heiden. Aus dem Lat. übers. J. F. Kleuker. Frankf.: Hermann (1797). 432 S. Klein-8vo. (Details from bookseller ad. on www.zvab.com). 
H. KELLNER-G. ESSER, BKV2 24 (1915). Online.
-- C. BECKER, loc. cit. 
P. C. IJSSELING, Tertullianus, Verdediging der Christenen. Nijkerk, 1909; 
-- idem,
Tertullianus' Apologeticum, vertaald en toegelicht (Klassieken der Kerk). Amsterdam, 1947.
-- CHR. MOHRMANN, Tertullianus, Apologeticum, en andere geschriften uit Tertullianus' voormontanistischen tijd, ingeleid, vertaald en toegelicht (MC 1, 3). Utrecht-Brussels, 1951, 1-130.
Polish: J. SAJDAK, Apologetyk, z laciny tlumaczyl dal wstep i ojasbienia. Poznan, 1947.
Modern Greek: J. D. FRANCOULES, 9O a0pologhtiko&j. Athens, 1936.
Czech: Václav VOJÁÈEK, Q. Sept. Fl. Tertulliana Apologetikum. Praha, 1877. (Details from Petr Kitzler.  Elderly Czech dialect, and difficult to understand).
-- Josef NOVÁK, Tertullianus - Apologeticum. Pøel. a poznámkami opatøil J.N., Praha, 1987. Series: Patristická èítanka 4. (Details from Petr Kitzler.  Does not follow the Latin closely.  Translated with explanatory notes).  Online.
Danish: 1880 : Tertullians Forsvarsskrift for de Kristne mod Hedningerne. Oversat af C.J. Arnesen. (= Vidnesbyrd af Kirkefædrene 2), Christiania 1880, 139 s. [Norwegian translation, at that time almost the same as Danish. Arnesen was born 1847]. (Details from Holger Villadsen)
-- 1990 : Tertullians forsvarsskrift for de kristne. Oversættelse med indledning og noter af Niels Willert. (= Bibel og historie 15), Århus: Aarhus Universitets-forlag 1990, 134 s. (Details from Holger Villadsen)
Apologeticum, selections in Danish:
    1915            [Uddrag af Forsvarsskrift for de Kristne]. i: Haar 1915.  (Details from Holger Villadsen)
    1946            Tertullianus' försvar för kristendomen. Övers. av D. Andreæ. i: Hag-berg 1946, 41-58. (Details from Holger Villadsen)
    1966            Tertullian: Apologeticum [kap. 1-3]. i: Molland 1966, 12-20. (Details from Holger Villadsen)
    1968            Tertullian: Forsvarsskrift for de kristne [uddrag]. i: Welle 1968, 9-44. (Details from Holger Villadsen)
Hungarian: László VANYÓ &c, Tertullianus muvei (The works of Tertullian), Budapest: Szent István Társulat (1986) 1100pp. (Ókeresztény frók 12). (Details CTC 2002.75).  The older translations of István Városi (Pat, Apol, Orat, Ux, Cult) and Marcell Mosolygó (Mart) have been recycled; the rest are new.

Text Critical Studies: 

C. CALLEWAERT, Le Codex Fuldensis, le meilleur manuscrit de l'Apologeticum de Tertullien: RHL 7 (1902) 322-353.
H. BOEHMER, Eine bisher nicht beachtete Handschrift des Apologeticus Tertullians, Theologische Literaturzeitung 23 (1903), col. 645.  also in .
Alexander SOUTER, A tenth-century fragment of Tertullian's Apology, Journal of Theological Studies, 8 (1907), 297-300.
J. P. WALTZING, Les trois principaux manuscrits de L'Apologétique De Tertullien, Le Musée Belge 16 (1912), pp.181-240.(pp181-187 only online) also in English translation
H. SCHROERS, Zur Textgeschichte und Erklärung von Tertullians Apologeticum (TU 60, 4). Leipzig, 1913.
G. RAUSCHEN, Prof. Heinrich Schroers und meine Ausgabe von Tertullians Apologeticum. Bonn, 1914.
C. CALLEWAERT, La valeur du Codex Fuldensis pour le rétablissement du texte de l'Apologeticum de Tertullien. Louvain, 1914.
J. P. WALTZING, Étude sur le Codex Fuldensis de l'Apologétique de Tertullien (Bibliothèque de la Fac. de philos. et lettr. de l'univ. de Liège, fasc. 21). Liège-Paris, 1914/17.
E. LÖFSTEDT, Tertullians Apologeticum textkritisch untersucht. Lund, 1915.
S. COLOMBO, Animadversiones criticae quaedam ad Tertulliani Apologetici textum : Didaskaleion 4 (1915) 65-96; 
Per la critica del testo dell' Apologetico Tertullianeo : Didaskaleion 5 (1916) 1-36.
G. THÖRNELL, Kritische Studien zu Tertullians Apologeticum: Eranos 16 (1916) 82-161.
C. WEYMAN, Zu Tertullians Apologeticum: Hermes (1916) 309.
L. WOHLEB, Zu Tertullians Apologeticum: PhW 36 (1916) 539-544, 603-608, 636-640, 848-856, 1537-1538, 1568-1570, 1635-1639.
E. LÖFSTEDT, Kritische Bemerkungen zu Tertullians Apologeticum. Lund-Leipzig, 1918.
G. RAUSCHEN, Emendationes et adnotationes ad Tertulliani Apologeticum (FP 12). Bonn, 1919.
J. SCHRIJNEN, Ad Tertulliani Apologetici cap. VII, 11, 12: Mnem (1920) 260-263.
Alexander SOUTER, A supposed fragment of the lost codex Fuldensis of Tertullian, Journal of Theological Studies, 22 (1921), 163-4.
J. P. WALTZING, Pour l'étude de Tertullien. Introduction à l'Apologétique: Musée Belge (1921) 7-28.
A. MANCINI, Per la tradizione dell' Apologetico di Tertulliano: RFIC NS 4 (1926) 87-90.
G. THÖRNELL, Studia Tertullianea IV. De Tertulliani Apologetico bis edito. Uppsala, 1926.
G. PASQUALI, Per la storia del testo dell' Apologetico di Tertulliano: Studi Italiani di Filologia Classica 7 (1929) 13-57.
H. EMONDS, Zweite Auflage im Altertum. Leipzig, 1941, 137-187.
O. TESCARI, In Tertulliani Apologeticum 46, 14 adnotatiuncula: RAC 23/24 (1947/48) 349-352.
C. BECKER, loc. cit., 1951, 285--316.

Other Studies: 

J. CHAPMAN, Phlegon examined critically and impartially : In answer to the late Dissertation and defence of Dr. Sykes. To which is added a postscript, explaining a passage in Tertullian. By
John Chapman. Cambridge: printed at the University Press for Cornelius Crownfield: and John Crownfield, London, (1734).  [4],87,[1]p.. ; 8º. (Details from Goettingen
J. E. B. MAYOR, Tertullian's Apology : Journal of Philology 21 (1893) 259-295.
F. X. FUNK, Tertullien et l'Agape (Apol. 39) : Revue d'Histoire Ecclésiastique 5 (1904) 5-15. Checked. Online.
F. X. FUNK, La question de l'agape - un dernier mot, Revue d'Histoire Ecclésiastique 7 (1906) pp. 5-15. Checked.  Online.  [Quasten 'pp 2-25' is inaccurate]
P. HENEN, L'Apologétique de Tertullien et le Thesaurus linguae latinae: Revue de l'Instruction publique en Belgique (1911) 1-9.
G. A. T. DAVIES, Tertullian and the Pliny-Trajan correspondence, Journal of Theological Studies 14 (1913) pp. 407-414
F. DI CAPUA, Tertulliano, Apologet. 47, 6: Didaskaleion 3 (1914) 65-68. Checked. Online.
E. T. MERRILL, Tertullian on Pliny's persecution of Christians: AJPh (1918) 124-135. [Quasten ref. is wrong.  Not in American Journal of Philology for 1918]
A. VITALE, La storia della versione dei Settanta e l'antichità della Bibbia nell' Apologetico di Tertulliano: Musée Belge (1922) 62-72.
F. J. DÖLGER, Sonne und Sonnenstrahl als Gleichnis in der Logostheologie des christlichen Altertums (Apol. 21) : Antike und Christentum 1 (1929) 271-290;
idem, Vorbeter und Zeremoniar. Zu 'monitor' und 'praeire'. Ein Beitrag zu Tertullians Apologeticum 30, 4 : Antike und Christentum 2 ( 1930) 241 -251.
M. BALSAMO, Paralleli non ancora osservati tra l'ad Nationes e l'Apologetico di Tertulliano: Didaskaleion NS 8 (1930) 28-34.
J. W. PH. BORLEFFS, Tertullian und Lukrez (Apol. 8): PhW 52 (1932) 350-352. Checked. Online.
J. CARCOPINO, Survivances par substitution des sacrifices d'enfants dans l'Afrique romaine: RHR 106 (1932) 592-599. Checked. Online
F. J. DÖLGER, 'Sacramentum infanticidii': Antike und Christentum 4 (1934) 118-200.
G. THÖRNELL, Apol. 12, 8: Eranos (1934) 153-155; 
Anulus pronubus. Der eiserne und der goldene Verlobungsring nach Plinius und Tertullianus (Apol. 6, 4, 6): AC 5 (1936) 188-200.
H. EMONDS, Die Oligarchenrevolte zu Megara im Jahre 375 und der Philosoph Ichthyas bei Tertullian, Apol. 46, 16: RhM (1937) 180-191.
A. BOURGERY, Le problème de l'Institutum Neronianum (invention de Tertullian) : Latomus (1938) 106-111. Checked. Online.
E. BICKEL, Fiunt, non nascuntur christiani (Apol. 18) : Pisciculi, Festschrift für F. J. Dölger. Münster, 1939, 54-61.
F. J. DÖLGER, Wenn der Tiber in die Stadtmauern steigt, dann heißt es: Die Christen vor die Löwen (Apol. 40, 2) : AC 6 (1940) 157-159.
L. ALFONSI, Tertulliano, Apol. 46, 15: Hommages J. Bidez-F. Cumont. Brussels, 1949, 5-11.
J. BERAN, De ordine missae secundum Tertulliani 'Apologeticum': Miscellanea L. C. Mohlberg 2. Rome, 1949, 7-32.
E. GRIFFE, Le christianisme en face de l'État romain. La base juridique des persécutions (chez Tertullien) : BLE (1949) 129-145.
J. ZEILLER, L'égalité et l'arbitraire dans les persécutions contre les chrétiens : AB 67(1949) 49-54. 
S. OSWIECIMSKI, Ad litteras Romanas symbolae duae (Apol. 15) : Eos 44, 1 (1950) 111-122.
R. M. GRANT, Two Notes on Tertullian (Apol. 47, 6-7) : VC 5 (1951) 6-7.
J. W. PH. BORLEFFS, Institutum Neronianum: VC 6 (1952) 129-145.
Marian BABINSKI, "Apologetyk" Tertuliana: motywy inwencyjine i kompozycja utworu (The "Apologeticum" of Tertullian: the new themes and the composition of the work).  Roczniki humanistyczne. Filologia klasyczna [Lublin], vol. XLV, zeszyt 3 (1997), pp.57-114. (English summary, pp.113-4). (Details CTC2002).
Barbara GAGLIARDI, Considerazioni sull'atteggiamento di Tiberio di fronte al dogma della divinità di Cristo. Miscellanea di studi storici (Cosenza, Università degli studi della Calabria, Dipartmento di storia) 11 (1998-2001), pp.47-54. (Details CTC 2003, 28).  Review of the main arguments against the authenticity of Tertullian's information in Apol. 5:2 that Tiberius favoured enrolling Christ among the gods; the source for the story remains unknown.


Ilaria RAMELLI, Protector Christianorum (Tert. Apol. 5:4) : il 'miracolo della pioggia' e la lettera di Marco Aurelio al Senato.  Aevum 76 (2002), pp.101-112.  (Details CTC2002).  Discussing the miracle of rain on the army of M. Aurelius; the author tries to resolve some chronological issues.
Roland MINNERATH, Tertullien précurseur du droit à la liberté de religion.  Moyen Âge chrétien et Antiquité, ed. Gérard GUYON. Paris: L'Harmattan (1999), pp. 33-43. (=Méditerranées, Revue de l'association Méditerranées publiée avec la concours de l'Université de Paris X-Nanterre, no. 18-19, 1999). (Details CTC2002).

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