138 Or, "during."

139 i.e., the dress was the sign that they had obtained it.

140 I have departed from Oehler's reading here, as I have not succeeded in finding that the "stola" was a boy's garment; and, for grammatical reasons, the reading of Gelenius and Pamelius (which I have taken) seems best.

141 See 1 Cor. ix. 19.

142 St. Paul in his epistle glories in the title, "Paul, a slave," or "bondman," "of Christ Jesus."

143 Luke ix. 58; Matt. viii. 20.

144 Matt. xi. 8; Luke vii. 25.

145 Isa. liii. 2.

146 See John xiii. 1-17.

147 See John xviii. 36.

148 John vi. 15.

149 In baptism.

150 i.e., From your birth and means, you will be expected to fill offices which are in some way connected with idolatry.

151 i.e., Martyrdom (La Cerda, quoted by Oehler). For the idea of being "a magistrate in the heavens," [sitting on a throne] compare such passages as Matt. xix. 28; Luke xxii. 28, 30, 1 Cor. vi. 2,3; Rev. ii. 26,27, iii. 21.

152 Elucidation II.

153 "Sacramentum" in Latin is, among other meanings, "a military oath."

154 Virgam." The vine switch, or rod, in the Roman army was a mark of the centurion's (i.e., captain's) rank.

155 To fasten the ephod; hence the buckle worn by soldiers here referred to would probably be the belt buckle. Buckles were sometimes given as military rewards (White and Riddle).

156 As soldiers with belts.

157 Matt. xxvi. 52; 2 Cor. x. 4; St. John xviii. 36.

158 See Luke iii. 12,13.

159 Matt. viii. 5, etc; Luke vii. 1, etc.

160 Neither Oehler nor any editor seems to have discovered the passage here referred to.

161 Matt. xii. 37.

162 Ex. xxiii. 13. [St. Luke, nevertheless, names Castor and Pollux, Acts xxviii. ii., on our author's principle.]

163 Ex. xxiii. 13.

164 Ex. xx. 7.

165 Because Scripture calls idols "vanities" and "vain things." See 2 Kings xvii. 15, Ps. xxiv. 4, Isa. lix. 4, Deut. xxxii. 21, etc.

166 Ps. xcvi. 5. The LXX. In whose version ed. Tisch. It is Ps. xcv. Read daimo/nia, like Tertullian. Our version has "idols."

167 Mehercule. Medius Fidius. I have given the rendering of the latter, which seems preferred by Paley (Ov. Fast. vi. 213, note), who considers it = me dius (i.e., Deus) fidius juvet. Smith (Lat. Dict. s.v.) agrees with him, and explains it, me deus fidius servet. White and Riddle (s.v.) take the me (which appears to be short) as a "demonstrative" particle or prefix, and explain, "By the God of truth!" "As true as heaven," "Most certainly,"

168 i.e., for fear of being discovered to be a Christian (Oehler).

169 See Matt. v. 44, 1 Pet. iii. 9, etc.

170 i.e., the precept which enjoins me to "do good and lend."

171 Elucidation III.

172 Or, "mortgaged."

173 This is, perhaps, the most obscure and difficult passage in the entire treatise. I have followed Oehler's reading, and given what appears to be his sense; but the readins are widely different, and it is doubtful whether any is correct. I can scarcely, however, help thinking that the "se negant" here, and the "tamen non negavi" below, are to be connected with the "puto autem nec negare" at the end of the former chapter; and that the true rendering is rather: "And [by so doing] deny themselves," i.e., deny their Christian name and faith. "Doubtless a time of persecution," such as the present time is-or "of prosecution," which would make very good sense-"and the place of the tribunal, and the person of the presiding judge, require them to know themselves," i.e., to have no shuffling or disguise. I submit this rendering with diffidencel but it does seem to me to suit the context better, and to harmonize better with the "Yet I have not denied," i.e., my name and faith, which follows, and with the "denying letters" which are mentioned at the end of the chapter.-Tr.

174 Mr. Dodgson renders "conceiveth;" and the word is certainly capable of that meaning.

175 See Matt. v. 28.

176 Oehler understands "the lighter crime" or "charge" to be "swearing;" the "heavier," to be "denying the Lord Christ."

177 See Luke i. 20,22,62,63.

178 This is how Mr. Dodgson renders, and the rendering agrees with Oehler's punctuation. [So obscure however, is Dodgson's rendering that I have slightly changed the punctuation, to clarify it, and subjoin Oehler's text.] But perhaps we may read thus: "he speaks in his pen; he is heard in his waxen tablet : the hand is clearer than every sound ; the letter is more vocal than every mouth." [Oehler reads thus: "Cum manibus suis a corde dictat et nomen filii sine ore pronuntiat: loquitur in stilo, auditur in cera manus omni sono clarios, littera omni ore vocalior." I see no difficulty here.]

179 Elucidation IV.

180 1 Cor. v. 10.

181 Acts xv. 1-31.

182 i.e., cease to be Christians (Rigalt., referred to by Oehler).

183 [General references to Kaye (3d edition), which will be useful to those consulting that author's Tertullian, for Elucidations of the De Idololatria, are as follows: Preface, p. xxiii. Then, pp. 56, 141, 206, 231, 300, 360, 343, 360 and 362.]

184 See vol. ii., p. 186, this series.

De Spectaculis

1 [It is the opinion of Dr. Neander that this treatise proceeded from our author before his lapse: but Bp. Kaye (p. xvi.) finds some exaggerated expressions in it, concerning the military life which savour of Montanism. Probably they do, but had he written the tract as a professed Mointanist, they would have been much less ambiguous, in all probability. At all events, a work so colourless that doctors can disagree about even its shading, must be regarded as practically orthodox. Exaggerated expressions are but the characteristics of the author's genius. We find the like in all writers of strongly marked individuality. Neander dates this treastise circa a.d. 197. That it was written at Carthage is the conviction of Kaye and Dr. Allix; see Kaye, p. 55.]

2 [He speaks of Catechumens, called elsewhere Novitioli. See Bunsen, Hippol. III. Church and House-book, p. 5.]

3 [Here he addresses the Fideles or Communicants, as we call them.]

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